For centuries, libraries, archives and museums have served their intended audience with meticulously crafted and curated collections, while these collections are also subject to criticisms in regard to their comprehensiveness, and collection and use policies that may entail censorship and privacy infringement. The digital space, on the other hand, has been envisaged as a space for the public to voice their views and opinions and to share their knowledge without national or institutional regulations and constraints, despite the fact that it has also become the ground for surveillance. Who, then, should be responsible for the governance and regulation, and the production of content and knowledge in the digital space? How much control should be placed on the construction of information and information infrastructures by the authority? How is authority granted? We will answer these questions by investigating a social ontology of information in relations to public discourse and social responsibility.
When Apple and HTC introduced their first smartphone devices in 2007 and 2008 respectively, they ushered in an era or rapid technological development for personal devices. The rate of adoption of these devices has been extraordinary; research by eMarketer expects 1.75 billion smartphone users by the end of 2014. Technological advances have helped drive this adoption rate. Cloud computing, social media and smartphones and tablet devices have together admitted the development of novel, useful applications by developers. These developments have changed how, where and what we search for. They have also effected the type and quantity of information sought and the media we consume. We are now more often than not connected, able to consume and contribute at will; together these technologies extend the concept of the digital prosthesis, allowing integration of information access into our everyday work and personal tasks. These advances must be understood so that useful means of information access can be developed. This paper presents the results of a study conducted to understand where, how and with whom smartphones and tablets are used for search and information seeking.
Meanings of words in natural language are changing over time under the influences of different actors. Words adapt new meanings, lose old meanings, rearrange current meanings and change only parts of previous etc. Rapid development of human thinking and knowledge caused new disciplines to occur, and some old to die out. Some phenomena disappear or even become inseparable with another. During those changes, definitions of things change and everything mentioned above reflects in written texts and documents in any type or kind. Subjects and topics of all these documents need to be accessible today and in future. As a natural language, artificial languages such as classifications or subject indexing systems have to adjust to the changes which occur during time in their environment. This paper will describe methodological approach to analyses of changes which occur over time in one artificial language (Svenonius, 2000), i.e. classification system – Universal Decimal Classification (UDC). This paper explores how its mechanisms can be used to analyse the changes that occur in classification system over time.
The purpose of this paper is to present findings of a small-scale pilot study on the social impact of the Public Library and Reading Room Vinkovci, Croatia. Libraries have always been considered to be public good, their value implicit and unquestionable. However, in financially troubled times, more and more program performance and results-based planning, budgeting and reporting are becoming norm for libraries to justify their funding. In recent years the public libraries in Croatia have faced huge budget cuts which have put them under pressure to evaluate their programs, services, and resources and to demonstrate the value that public libraries add to the community they serve. In the past, libraries collected primarily data that gave insight into their inputs (e.g. income/expenditure, collection, staff, study places, user space) and outputs (e.g.loans/ in-house use, reference transactions, ILL/document delivery, customer training sessions, attendance at events). More recently, impact/outcome assessment has become recognized as the most important way to demonstrate library effects and value to its stakeholders and society in general, but the biggest problem connected with this type of assessment is the development of an adequate methodology. The evaluation of the public library impact on their customers and community is a complex task, and as such needs a number of different measuring tools – soft methods such as interviews and surveys seem to be the most effective.
Entrepreneurship is the pursuit of opportunity beyond resources controlled (Eisenmann, 2013). When does opportunity transition from insubstantial to substantive? This question concerns the ontological change that a signal undergoes, from noise to sign, as it crosses a system threshold, a process that creates information by assigning meaning. To maintain a business venture, an entrepreneur must distinguish signals which have can have meaning for the system and become signs from noise in the environment. This can be achieved either passively by filtering or by actively by search, but in any case the act of distinguishing, of finding ‘the difference that makes a difference’, is a cognitive action. In our view, the goal-oriented pursuit of opportunity beyond resources controlled is best understood as cognitive behaviour by the entrepreneurial system. As business is about numbers, how then do we approach the conversion of something qualitative ‘beyond resources controlled’ to something that can be dealt with quantitatively? Can quantitative methods be applied to fuzzy opportunity in the ‘beyond’? In this paper we would like to discuss exactly that from the perspectives of cybernetics and information theory. We propose to use the concept of information delay to extend the scope of quantitative analysis. Filtering and search strategies are embodied in the structure and functioning of the enterprise and can be analyzed in terms of cost and return in the information delay framework.
This paper examines whether the information is an objective or subjective concept based on initial distinction of phenomena of information by L. Qvortrup (Qvortrup, 1993). In that respect, L. Qvotrup gathers and represents four perspectives on information, starting from the objectively-oriented approach which defines information as something that exists in the outer world (as a difference in reality), to the objectively-softened approach according to which information is something in the outer world that causes change in cognitive system (difference which makes a difference). In addition, more subjectively-oriented approach implies that information is a change in cognitive system caused by the change in outer world (difference which finds the difference), while a completely subjective approach considers it as something existing exclusively in one’s mind as a mental construction, i.e. as a cognitive difference (Qvotrup, 1993). The aim of the paper is to comparatively analyze the main philosophic and theoretical streams concerning the Qvortrup’s view on information, critically reviewing them and putting in the context of DIKW hierarchy.
This paper presents findings of the research of organizational (sub)culture at subject cataloguing departments of six Croatian libraries. The awareness of type of the present organizational culture and subculture is crucial for all those who plan the introduction of changes in the activities of a certain organization. Any organization can have a tendency towards flexibility and discretion as opposed to stability and control. Differences in the organizations dominant characteristics, such as its leadership, employee management practices, organizational bonds, strategic emphasis, and measures of success, reflect these tendencies. The research showed that clan culture prevails at the five subject cataloguing departments, while only one departmant has hierarchy culture.
The concept of heritage and heritage institutions have always been influenced by changes in the context of technology development as well as changes in social, cultural, economic, political and other aspects of society in a certain place and time. This presentation is focused on raising and discussing questions relevant for establishing links between today's society and culture with an emphasis on the role of heritage institutions in communicating, presenting, explaining and safeguarding intellectual and artistic product of the society attributed by the potential heritage value. Some of these questions are: What is digital heritage? What value does a heritage item hold in a digital environment? How to make a preservation choice regarding digital heritage? Does a digital society need 'heritage values'? Who is responsible for ensuring long-term accessibility of heritage in the digital environment?
The primary purpose of OPACs is satisfying users’ information needs and providing a successful information retrieval process. In order to fulfil this purpose, it is recommended that libraries adjust and develop their OPACs to the increasingly demanding user needs and changes in the information environment in order to provide better interaction with users and a seamless searching process.With conducting usability tests of their OPACs, libraries can get useful results and analysis whether their OPACs are user - oriented. The research described in this paper aims to emphasize the importance of usability testing. Usability tests were conducted on the research sample consisting of 5 Croatian OPACs, using the heuristic evaluation usability method. The instrument of the research is a specified criteria catalogue BibEval, created by Cheval team at the Swiss Institute for Information Research (SII), and it is used in a form of an interactive web application created for usability evaluation and designing of library online services.
The aim of this research, which was conducted among participants over 65 years of age, was to determine the ways in which the elderly obtain information, the ways on which they rely on technology in the process, as well as the types of technology they use. The research examines the ways in which the participants tended to their information needs, the factors influencing their use of technology and their motivation to overcome the problems they encounter while using it. The sample consisted of 13 participants, eight of whom were the residents of the Osijek Retirement Home, while the rest lived on their own, and the oldest participant was 86 years of age. The participants were selected based on their expressed affinity towards the use of technology. The research method used was that of a semi-structured in-depth interview, with open-ended questions which addressed the participants' habits and skills when it came to the use of mobile phones, computers and television. On an individual basis, the behaviour patterns in tending to one's information needs were determined, as well as the reasons behind the potential avoidance of technology. Additionally, the extent to which the participants used the library and library resources to gather information was determined.
The aim of this presentation is to discuss the process of the institutionalisation of the Information Science, with an emphasis on the latest trends in the research and higher education.
It is extremely important for the development of every scientific discipline to present the theoretical assumptions and results of research, especially when the aim is a consensus on the social and cognitive institutionalisation of a certain discipline. The field of the Information Science is no exception.
Numerous investigations, based on quantitative indicators of published research results and qualitative analysis of the Information Science domain have made it possible to track the main trends and speculate about the future ones. Having read through such investigations and reflections as well as noting the most important conclusions, we will attempt to present the development, changes and challenges that concern the field of the Information Science.
Community hubs are being established as a part of different educational, cultural and scientific institutions throughout the world. Lately, libraries have also recognized the need to revive their role as cultural community hubs which bring people together by offering different services and support, learning opportunities and different social activities to their community members. Maker movement and hacker culture in libraries enable their patrons to think in a creative way, to apply DIY solutions when encountering a certain problem, to take initiative and think for themselves. Libraries of all types should create space for media/maker/hacker/fab labs, provide tools and services and engage their patrons in the practice of joint creativity and hands-on learning keeping in mind that these new spaces aren't here to replace the library but to act as a new addition to its services and activities. This paper will use descriptive research methodology combined with the review of current literature, resources and trends in the field as well as a presentation of leading examples of library makerspaces, hackerspaces and fab labs in the world.
People’s senses of identity interact with the ways they communicate in social networks. Digital communication offers a way for people to represent themselves and think about their social and psychological selves: the interface between computers and cyberspace symbolizes identity and social interactions. Digital communication involves virtual and anonymous dimensions and offers opportunities for online identity play. More recent research focuses on identity that is ‘nonymous’, which means that users are no longer anonymous and are identified and accountable in online communication. These studies highlight the way online identity is a self-conscious activity. However, online identity is also shaped by the mundane practicalities of offline identity, everyday life and the routines of daily digital communication. In these daily contexts identity and privacy, as mundanely understood, are negotiated in practical terms. Addressing identity as it is mediated through the social relations of communication points to changing social forms, such as networked individualism, which are part of an informational, mediated and surveillance society.
The aim of this presentation is to indicate problems that libraries face when it comes to the process of digitisation, with special emphasize on Croatia.
Libraries are known as bearers of human culture and civilization and in this way they play an important role in preservation of knowledge and its transfer to community. Digitisation is one of the possibilities that can help protecting and facilitating library collections: it is a procedure in which data are converted into digital format that can be used on computers and that represents a kind of object multiplication. The digitisation has become a part of our lives and buisness. Libraries, as educational and non profit organizations, have also felt an impact of the digitisation. Old books, history records and other library artefacts can be digitised and at the same time saved from various possibilities of being damaged or even destroyed. But the problem arrives regarding the issue of copyright. Although the digitisation is not the latest technological innovation, there are still many uncertainties regarding legal rights related to digitisation.
Regarding Croatia, its latest Copyright law from 2003 does not mention anything in relation to the digitisation. The latest changes in the Croatian law were made in 2014: certain EU directives were implemented. According to the changes in the article 84, public libraries, public archives, educational and scientific institutions etc., can digitize their holdings if they do not have commercial benefits from it. Before changes were made, this article limited the process of digitization to a single copy. In Croatia, the biggest problem is that the Copyright Law doesn't provide much information about libraries and digitalization. Librarians must seek for additional information from other sources, such as EU agendas, IFLA's sections and others. This is not the problem that occurs only in Croatia, it can be found in other countries worldwide. In 1998 therefore, The Council of Europe organized an international conference with the aim to work out legal issues related with libraries all around Europe. It was followed by The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) in 2000: the statement about copyright and digital area was brought. Their recommendations mention that the resource sharing has a crucial role in education and democracy, for which reason they recommend that both libraries and their users should have access to digitized materials. This statement was followed by the Croatian National Programme for digitization of materials from archives, libraries and museums which is based on many national laws, European recommendations and international guidelines. Regarding aforementioned, this presentation will try to give answers to the following problems:
- How do Croatian libraries manage to find right solutions when it comes to the question of digitisation and providing digitisated data to their users?
- Are there precisely defined legal rights that protect authors’ rights in the process of digitalization?
- Should libraries separate analogue and digital data, printed books from digitalized book?
- Can the rules for printed books be applied on digital books or does the process of digitalization change authors rights?
Spin is the leading research-development and implementation company in area of business information systems in Croatia. Their innovative product - Jupiter Software is the result of more than 20 years of research, development and improving. Jupiter Software is EAS (Enterprise Application Suite) system that integrates BI , ERP , CRM , HRM, WHM, MRP and many more functional modules. Integration of DMS systems in the business application is the latest research challenge for Spin development team of 30+ experienced software designers.
The challenges of building and integrating the DMS system in EAS systems are: the choice of storage methods and technology of unstructured data, metadata description, search speed and access rights management. The biggest challenge is the effective cross - integration of DMS system with standard relational structure of the business information system.
In the research we came to the result : RDBMS oriented DMS, connecting DMS entities with EAS system through many to many relationships, meta data in RDMBS table combining with XML formats, storing XML data as a BLOB in the RDBMS , integration of access rights with EAS authoring system.
In today’s digital world, when businesses migrate to the Internet where technologies and trends evolve rapidly, staying up to date is a necessary condition for survival. We, at Inchoo, work in an e-commerce industry where staying up to date is especially important and where many merchants fail to keep up with trends and best practices. When they realize that they are lagging behind and losing money, they opt for a complete revamp and redesign of their site which often inflicts issues to their returning customers no matter how good the process and the end result is. Why? Because two quality components of usability are completely reset for everyone - efficiency and memorability; and usability as a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interface is to use is a critical for every business’s conversion rates and revenue. In this presentation we will go through a data driven and testing method of incremental redesign and product development that we use at Inchoo when working with our clients to help them leap over possible downfalls and to continually grow their online business to the mutual satisfaction.