Prof. dr. sc. Vlatko Previšić
Prof. dr. sc. Nada Babić
Kontinuitet i diskontinuitet u obrazovanju na primjeru tranzicije u školu
U socijalnim politikama, marginalizacija djece, temeljena na njihovoj nekompetentnosti razlog je isključivanja djece iz sudjelovanja u odlučivanju o njima bitnim stvarima. Smisao podizanja djece je u pripremi za odraslost putem tranzicija. Na primjeru kontinuiteta i diskontinuiteta odgoja i obrazovanja razmatram višestruke perspektive/gledišta o relaciji djeca - roditelji - profesionalci u tranziciji između obitelji, vrtića i škole. Teorijska polazišta, politike djetinjstva i istraživanja kontinuiteta vs. diskontinuiteta vidim perspektivnim u promišljanju i tvorbi produktivnih praksi djetinjstva u različitim socijalno-kulturnim kontekstima djetinjstva iz perspektive djece i odraslih. Suvremene programe ranog obrazovanja obilježuje kompromisni pristup u odnosu na agentnost djece, dječja iskustva iz obiteljskog okruženja te na socijalna očekivanja iskazana standardiziranim ishodima. Kompromisni pristup posebice je vidljiv u tumačenju kontinuiteta vs. diskontinuiteta u kontekstu tranzicijâ. Tranzicija i kontinuitet oblikovani su prije svega, političkim, ekonomskim interesima s tendencijom ka univerzalnosti. Iz perspektive odraslih – profesionalaca i politike obrazovanja, prihvatljiva je "adekvatna" – primjerena razina diskontinuiteta jer pomaže djeci u prilagođavanju zahtjevima u različitim situacijama u višestrukim tranzicijama u smislu adaptibilnosti, fleksibinosti i učinkovitosti. Kako i na koji način minimalizirati moguće i stvarne "štete" višestruktih i preklapajućih tranzicija djece? Programima podrške kao načinom balansiranja između zahtjeva i iskustva učenja pojedinačnog djeteta? Ili pregovaranjem temeljenom na uzajamnom uvidu u osobne konceptualizacije i prakse (roditelji, djeca, učitelji, lokalno okruženje)? Osobno istraživanje dječjeg viđenja vrtića i škole ukazalo je važnost vrtića i škole iz dječje perspektive. Vrtić i škola posjeduju različite stvarne i potencijalne mogućnosti za kapitaliziranje personalnih iskustava i postignuća tijekom odrastanja. Uvid u dječja viđenja vrtiće i škole jedan je od načina razumijevanja stvarnosti djetinjstva i životnih tranzicija kao pretpostavke stvaranja okruženja u kojima djeca i odrasli putem recipročnih interakcija ostvaruju uzajamne akomodacije u kontinuiranom procesu postojanja i nastajanja.
Dr. Sándor Pálfi
The Change of the Roles of the Kindergarten Pedagogues in the Global Environment
The Hungarian Kindergarten Pedagogy is going through a transition period right now as well since the political and economic system changed after 1990. The Pedagogy bears the marks of the authoritarian socialist education preferring teaching and educating and at the same time there are more and more supporters of child-centred education as well. These ambivalent influences affect the interpretation and practical frameworks of the role of the Kindergarten pedagogue as well. Beside the inner development of the profession, the outside influence of mechanisms (free move and trade of capital and work force) that have become economic worldwide system are determining the maintainers and the parents. The iconic intendment model of this is called the Life Long Learning (LLL). The cultural-educational models of the economic power centres that go beyond borders appear as an influential fact because meanwhile, the countries of the European Union had recognized the later effects of early childhood investments as well. It should be considered what pedagogical roles can give an adequate answer to these challenges, which regard children development not in a short-term but in perspective of becoming an adult. Beside the classical role of care giving what pedagogical presence is needed: the teacher-educator, the one, who prepares for the transition and start of the next short-term change of institutions, who develops the required skills, deploys the gifts of the personality, supports the meeting and working out of needs, organizes the activities and dynamically fits the conditions to the individual.
Dr. Sándor Pálfi is a Professor at the University of Debrecen, Vice-Dean at the Faculty of Child and Adult Education and Head of the Department of Child Education. He has a BA in preschool education, MA in educational sciences and a PhD in educational sciences (PhD thesis: Characteristics of project pedagogy in the Hungarian kindergarten). Sándor teaches the following courses Basic principles of Kindergarten Pedagogy; Alternative Pedagogy; Play-Based Education; Project Pedagogy and its Method. His functions include conducting scientific research, governance and co-ordination of students’ scientific work, and he is also a tutor trainer for students at the kindergarten and a tutor at the Roma Collegium. He conducts extensive research on early childhood education, early childhood, principles of project pedagogy in Hungary, interpretation of child based education approach in kindergarten, adults’ role in supporting children’s play.
Dr. Verity Campbell-Barr
Making the case for the local in the globalization of early childhood education and care (ECEC)
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a recognised social investment strategy for supporting both parental employment and providing the foundations for a child’s lifelong learning amongst both supra-national organisations and national governments. The global interest in ECEC is shaped by the human capital perspective of invest now (in ECEC services and the children that attend them), save later (as children become economically productive adults, requiring reduced social expenditure). The global knowledge economy discourse of invest now, save later is problematic for both understandings of children and ECEC services. Children are assessed and valued against presumed normative child development, with a-typical development only being deemed a problem when there is an associated cost. Children are valued for what they will become (economic adults) rather than the children of today. The features of ECEC that are labelled as desirable are those that yield economic returns, creating narrow views of ECEC services and those who work in them. I do not dispute that ECEC is important in providing the foundations for a child’s later learning, but I do question the dominance of the global in constructions of ECEC services. Firstly, in regards to value, I believe that there is a need to consider the construction of value at the local level both in regards of the cost to provide services and the social returns of ECEC services. Secondly, it is the local that will offer the knowledges required to work in and provide ECEC services. Global theories of human capital and child development have a place in informing the provision of ECEC services, but it is the local knowledges of the child, the family and the community that will inform the day to day practice.
Dr. Verity Campbell-Barr is a Lecturer in Early Childhood Studies at Plymouth University, undertaking a Marie Curie European Research Fellowship (funded by the European Commission) in the Department of Child Education at the Faculty of Child and Adult Education, University of Debrecen, Hungary. Her research interests focus on the quality of early childhood services, drawing on post-structural perspectives to question who and what is determining constructions of quality. She has written extensively on the quality of early childhood services, including publishing Quality and leadership in the Early Years with her colleague Dr. Caroline Leeson, as well as writing a number of publications that question modernist and economic approaches for understanding quality early childhood services. Verity’s European Research Fellowship is considering the role of the workforce in the quality of early childhood services, focusing on the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to work with children. Verity’s research questions the relevance of the global knowledge economy for informing understandings of both quality early childhood services and the knowledge, skills and attitudes required of the workforce.